Periodontal inflammation



Gingivitis is inflammation of the gum tissue. Alongside dental cavity (also called dental caries ot tooth decay), it is one of the most common conditions encountered in the field of dental medicine. In more than 90% of cases, a gingivitis is caused by dental plaque, i.e. the accumulation of food and bacteria on the tooth surface and irregular removal due to subpar oral hygiene practices. Over time, primary soft deposits on tooth harden, becoming resistant to home brushing and necessitating professional cleaning for removal.

Other causes of gingivitis may be linked to:

  • certain systemic diseases
  • hormonal changes, e.g. during pregnancy.

Symptoms of gingivitis include: bleeding during tooth brushing, often accompanied by a metallic taste, blood in saliva, swelling and redness of the gums and unpleasant breath. Gingivitis is generally a painless condition, leading many patients to overlook or expect symptoms to resolve on their own. However, timely intervention can completely reverse gingivitis. It is of utmost importance to seek dental care at the onset of symptoms. The therapy for plaque-induced gingivitis involves eliminating or reducing bacteria. This entails complete plaque control, including hygiene measures and professional tooth brushing.


With persistent neglect of gingivitis symptoms, the inflammation progresses, extending beneath the gum line, creating a periodontal pocket where food debris and bacteria accumulate, leading to periodontitis.

Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, evolving from gingivitis.

Additional symptoms of periodontitis beyond those mentioned for gingivitis include:

  • receding gum tissue and bone
  • slight tooth mobility
  • tooth loss.

Periodontitis is an irreversible condition; once developed, it cannot be cured. This condition can only be managed through regular periodontal treatments. Similar to gingivitis, the primary aim of periodontitis treatment is to eliminate or reduce bacteria. Therapy comprises hygienic and initial phases, which may be supplemented with surgical interventions. The treatment of periodontitis involves comprehensive plaque control, including hygiene measures, supra- and subgingival plaque and tartar (also called dental calculus) removal and reduction of periodontal pocket depth.

All procedures are carried out entirely painlessly using local anesthesia, the application of which is determined by the periodontist depending on the complexity of the situation. Approximately three months after the completion of the initial phase, a reevaluation (recall) is performed to assess the success and progression of the treatment.



Are you troubled by periodontal inflammation?


Swollen and red gums, along with bleeding during tooth brushing, are the initial signs indicating the need for prompt examination. If you notice these symptoms, do not hesitate to contact us with full confidence! Our periodontists will determine a personalized therapy plan based on your situation.

Dr. Mihovil Šmit